This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The midge maggots enter into the buds at the base of the corollas resulting in swelling and shrivelling at the base of the buds. The males were brownish and shorter than females. Felt, midge, Contarinia maculipennis Felt (Diptera: Except for the adult, all Blossom midge pupae from hibiscus The America. bud to affect the maggots. It is suitable for coastal sub-tropical regions and establishes in 1–2 years. Soc. Although more than 200 species are known, 40 species have been identified in India, and 20 species are cultivated in South India [4, 5, 6], of which only three species are used for commercial cultivation namely, J. sambac (Gundumalli/Madurai Malli), Jasminum auriculatum (Mullai), and Jasminum grandiflorum (Jathimalli/Pitchi). The results revealed that Metarhizium anisopilae @ 1 × 10 8 spores ml -1 recorded maximum maggot mortality over untreated control (80.06 per cent) followed by Beauveria bassiana @ 1 × 10 8 spores ml -1 spores ml -1 recording 67.57 per cent mortality. (actual size=1-2 mm long). important management practice for the blossom midge. 3) and burrows back up to the soil surface in preparation for emergence as an The name “jasmine” or “jessamine” is derived from the Arabic and Persian “yasmin” or “yasaman” and originally referred to the species of Arabian jasmine (Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait) [2]. center, dendrobium buds; right, dendrobium bud drop [Photos: A. Hara, R. Mau]. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. stage. the exclusion of other products that may be suitable. L.S., T.J. Weissling, J.E. It is a small climbing bushy plant with simple ovate dark green small leaves and small white flowers. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. As they mature in 5-7 days to 1/12 inch (about the Some of the flowers affected by blossom or gall midge insects include: Daylilies; Orchids; Plumeria; Violets; Jasmine; Hibiscus; They also attack vegetable crops including: Tomato; Pepper; Potato; Eggplant; Bok choy; They aren’t all bad guys, though. stages of the blossom midge are secluded within the bud (as maggots) or in the soil (as Adult midge emerges from the soil surface in due course of time but survive for only 4 days. Blossom midge, Contarinia maculipennis Felt (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera), a dipteran pest, has attained the status of a major pest causing severe economic loss by reducing the marketable quality of the flowers. Soc. 1). and blossoms, and in severe infestations, premature bud or blossom drop (Fig. 14(1):91-100. FOR QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS PLEASE CONTACT: Arnold Hara: 461 West Lanikaula St. Hilo, HI 96720, Ph: (808) 974-4105 Fax: (808) Rake the soil to kill the pupae in the ground. Adapted from the authors' CTAHR publication,  "Blossom Midge in Hawaii - a Hawaii, or the United States Department of Agriculture and does not imply its approval to One of the techniques to decrease the pest damage is the use of the cultivars or species, which shows higher resistance to insect pests such as J. nitidum and J. grandiflorum in areas where incidence of jasmine mites was high. brown (Fig. As a subscriber, you are not only a beneficiary of our work but also its enabler. numbers of buds. Adult emergence from pupae in the The average egg period was 1.3, 1.2, 1.1, and 1.1 days in J. sambac, J. auriculatum, J. grandiflorum, and J. nitidum, respectively. The plant has orange blossoms and it does best when planted in the outdoor gardens. chemicals that are known to be effective against the blossom midge. A serious pest is causing significant problems for Within 24 hours maggots emerge from the eggs and move into the buds. Jasmine is an important flower crop grown on a commercial scale. even though the temperature was maintained at 65. structure which facilitates ovipositing. This information is the culmination of a series of interviews with researchers, 28 days. Printable version | Nov 4, 2020 11:39:12 AM |, Three farming enthusiasts in Thiruvananthapuram come up with a model to raise a varied range of crops. The genus Jasminum, belonging to Oleaceae or Olive family, contains over 200 species of vines or shrubs with opposite leaves and fragrant flowers [1]. You have reached your limit for free articles this month. The sweet, heady fragrance of J. sambac is its distinct feature (Figure 1). The maggots feed on fluids It’s a support for truth and fairness in journalism. The leaves of this Jasmine species are oval with a deep green shine. To compare the lifecycle of the notorious midge in all the cultivable Jasminum species, a detailed laboratory study was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India. move from the sprayed leaf surface to the other surface) may be capable of penetrating the The life span of blossom midge, C. maculipennis, was studied on four cultivable Jasminum species namely, J. sambac, J. auriculatum, J. grandiflorum, and J. nitidum in the laboratory. Figure 3. Notes on the life history and ecology of blossom midge Contarinia lycopersici Felt (Diptera: ovipositor into the open end of a bud. was observed to be more susceptible to blossom midge infestation due to its flower Contarinia Except for the adult, all The eggs are deposited in Flowers are fragrant in many-flowered cymes. E.P. reported on dendrobium orchids in Florida in 1992. The adults usually lived for 1–2 days and for 3 days in rare cases. We promise to deliver quality journalism that stays away from vested interest and political propaganda. within the bud and the pupae are burrowed in the soil. Haw. Collect and destroy fallen and discoloured flower buds. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. of Agriculture or the University of Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service for registered I. Merlin Kamala (September 23rd 2020). Pupation occurred in the top superficial layer of soil in a thin white case. The average egg, maggot, pupal, and adult period were 1.3, 4.4, 7.3, and 2.0 days in J. sambac. Previous research works studied on the life stages of C. maculipennis and evolved the same results [14]. originated from Asia (the “West Indies”). As we fight disinformation and misinformation, and keep apace with the happenings, we need to commit greater resources to news gathering operations. The on Insect and Disease Management on Ornamentals. © 2020 The Author(s). 25-27, 2001, Orlando, FL. This twinning climber has slender stems and forms a dense habit. The maggots on eclosion were dull white in color and turned yellow as the development progressed. D.D. Host plants adversely affect the biology of the phytophagous insect, reducing the size, longevity, fecundity, and increasing mortality or alternatively may indicate that midges do not prefer to feed on J. auriculatum, J. grandiflorum, and J. nitidum. A certain variety of tomato 1950. Licensee IntechOpen. Sanitation is the most [Photo: S. Chun]. J. Jayaraj & S. Manisegaran, Agricultural College and Research InstituteMadurai. A certain variety of tomato Osborne, The flowers open at night (usually around 6–8 in the evening). T.Higgins, and N. Rechcigl (eds.). The major pests affecting jasmine are jasmine bud worm (Hendecasis duplifascialis Hampson), leaf webworm (Nausinoe geometralis Guenee), gallery worm (Elasmopalpus jasminophagus Hampson), leaf roller (Glyphodes unionalis Hübner), and the two spotted mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). The average pupal period was 7.5, 7.3, 7.2, and 7.0 days in J. sambac, J. auriculatum, J. grandiflorum, and J. nitidum, respectively. Gagné, masses by the adult female into the open tips of flower buds. While comparing the biology in different Jasminum species, the egg period was highest (1.3 days) in J. sambac and least (1.1 days) in J. grandiflorum and J. nitidum. This plant, with its extremely fragrant flowers, is native to southern Asia, but it has been cultivated in the Middle East for centuries [3]. Due to the blossom midge’s wide range of hosts, planting of possible alternate hosts around the crop area should be avoided. important management practice for the blossom midge. The biology of jasmine midge is attempted in the four cultivable jasmine species, that is, J. sambac, J. auriculatum, J. grandiflorum, and J. nitidum. Pena, and D.W. Armstrong. The Hindu has always stood for journalism that is in the public interest. The To enable wide dissemination of news that is in public interest, we have increased the number of articles that can be read free, and extended free trial periods. been isolated or specifically introduced to Hawaii to control the blossom midge. Pupae are light yellow in colour. Pupation is most successful in soil that is moist but not wet. Spraying of monocrotophos 36 WSC or profenofos 50EC at 2 ml/lit, acephate 75 SP or carbaryl 50WP at 2gm/lit and neem seed kernel extract 5 per cent. The total life cycle was highest (15.4 days) in J. sambac and least (13.4 days) in J. nitidum [15]. In an average, the adult period was observed to be 2.0, 1.9, 1.8, and 1.9 days in J. sambac, J. auriculatum, J. grandiflorum, and J. nitidum, respectively. skin protruding from the soil. Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Cooperative Extension Service, University of accordance with label instructions. Ent. female blossom midge is unable to penetrate plant tissues but rather inserts its Figure 4. Bulletin of Entomological Research inside unopened flower buds, causing deformed, discolored  buds Entire life cycle is completed in 21 to 28 days under optimum conditions. soil usually occurs in the early evening. stage. adult in14-21 days after entering the soil. The observations on life cycle parameters of blossom midge, C. maculipennis, revealed that the life cycle consists of egg, maggot, pupa, and adult. 4). plumeria, hibiscus, pikake (jasmine), white mustard cabbage or pak choi, tomato, was observed to be more susceptible to blossom midge infestation due to its flower Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. The adult blossom midge is In: Proceedings for the 17th Conference The total duration taken to complete egg to adult stage was 15.4, 14.3, 13.3, and 13.4 days in J. sambac, J. auriculatum, J. grandiflorum, and J. nitidum, respectively (Figure 8). maculipennis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a polyphagous pest newly reported for North In Florida, blossom midge ground-pupating fly larvae such as the melon fly and oriental fruit fly. even though the temperature was maintained at 65o F and plants had sufficient Soil application of carbofuron 3G at 30kg/ha Drenching the soil surface with chlorpyrifos 20EC at 5ml/lit may also prove effective. We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, our lives and livelihoods, during these difficult times. The longest duration of midges on J. sambac revealed the presence of physical factors like bud shape and size or chemical factors like high phenols, lower protein, and sugars that impair the faster growth and development. Lateral leaflets are much smaller, rarely exceeding 4 mm in diameter, the central one up to 3.5 cm long and 1.5 cm broad, ovate, shortly pointed. The maggots scraped the petals, stamen, and stigma and suck sap from the flower buds. The eggs were elongated and cylindrically laid on the inner whorls of the petals in groups of 10–13 during night times. When laying eggs, the adult Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals.

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