In light of the conviction of the Chelan themselves that they comprised a distinct cultural unit ([a] above), this treatment is surely only the consequence of seeing the tribal units of the area in terms of supratribal cultural and linguistic entities and makes no pretense of concerning itself with population groupings at a more local level and according to the Indians' own view of functional social groupings. He went down the Columbia to the Methow mouth and then ascended the Methow Valley. (Ray 1942:134). Skin gowns were an exception, for some received applique ornamentation of some kind (Ray 1972:165). This was a flat back-board of cottonwood, trapezoidal in shape with the greater width at the top. Whatever ethnographic data are provided are not included here but are integrated into the culture-descriptive sections to which attention is soon turned. (Ray 1942:247), Among the Wenatchi the shaman's assistance was solicited by a kinsman of the ill person who brought gifts to the shaman and promised others. Waterfowl -- ducks and sometimes geese -- were taken by the Wenatchi, but apparently played a minor role in the subsistence resources of the tribe (Ray 1942:116-117). A buckskin flap provided drainage for male infants. If the plants were, as I suspect, balsamroot. For the Chelan proper the only genuinely informative demographic data known to me are the Chelan winter village and summer camp estimates of Ray (1936:141-142; 1974a:419-423) together with the somewhat arbitrary figures that I have assigned to those Chelan population aggregates of Ray for which he provides no head count approximations but only descriptive guides of the "very large," "large," and "small" variety. (After Spier 1936:42-43, modified by addition of Entiat, elimination of Sinkaqai'ius as a tribal entity, and redesignation of Middle Columbia as Columbia.). 52). Without the Indian our journey would have been scarcely possible. A careful examination of the topographic and geological evidence would doubtless test these highly speculative hypotheses, but its seems conceivable that salmonids were able to ascend to Lake Chelan and the Stehekin drainage during some periods in the prehistoric past. Wenatchi snowshoes consisted of a maple frame bent into what is described as a "comet shape." On the other side hung a white suit. Present were the patient's friends and relatives, who urged the shaman to affect a cure. Instead, I will put it in water to be washed for Children were expected, under penalty of whipping, to engage in morning plunges to develop their hardihood. Unfortunately, no record of this reconnaissance is in my hands. Dancing, however, was an element in the shamanistic curing process, the curer himself performing. But working with these rough figures, we find that the population of the winter villages totals about 1,185 persons. Whole chokecherries and pine nuts were mascerated. On the other hand, the highest elevations of the mountainous areas offered very little in the way of hunting opportunities. The group's single boat was inadequate to transport the full party. On the other hand, if the data and speculations of the previous subsistence section are essentially sound, temporary food quest and other task-oriented camps must surely have been occupied by the Chelan in favorable locations within the Park Complex, both on and off the primary trails, as bases for seasonal resource exploitation. . The disposition of the illness-causing agent is described above. Though essentially alike, the dances were sponsored in a variety of ways: by a shaman with assistants and a spokesman, by a layman at the command of his guardian spirit, or by other individuals with a shaman in charge. walls at the north end of the lake, the paintings remained for a Spoons with rounded bowls were fashioned of mountain goat (not bighorn sheep) horn and others, with a short handle, were made of maple or alder. Perhaps there would have been serious problems with such a route beyond McClellan's turning point that are not apparent from my topographic maps (e.g., like a dense forest cover or flinty stones that damage horses' feet), but Pierce's trail was likewise not without its difficulties (see below). As a practical matter, however, this is possible to only a limited degree, for the Methow and Entiat are ethnographically as poorly described as the Chelan. (Ray 1942:193-194), In delivering, the woman grasped an upright post or stick and held a blanket in her mouth to stifle her cries. Population probably reached c. 500 persons. The infant was bathed in warm water in a special shallow woven basket and rubbed with herbs or vegetable coloring material. (a) On open point extending out into lake, 3/10 mile NW of junction of highway 10C, on N side of Lake Chelan, and Gold Creek road. The head was eaten by the hunter, who invited friends to join him. Since salmon, at least in protohistoric and postcontact times, were unable to negotiate the rushing torrent of Chelan River from the Columbia River to Lake Chelan, the Chelan could not have used a trap of this sort for salmon in the lake area. The roof, conical or pyramidal in form, was framed with radiating poles with a pitch of 20 degrees or more. (Ray 1942:255-256). over to that place and wake it up. On the other hand, pestles, tapered in shape, were of stone, wooden devices to serve this purpose not having been employed by the Wenatchi. The ritual was a simple one, consisting of a feast held in the child's home. Or by throwing some object, not directly associated with the person to be damaged, on a refuse heap or a grave, causing him "sympathetically" to wither or rot away as the object itself disintegrated. Territorial boundaries shifted frequently in the Plateau Region, as tribes competed for the best hunting grounds. This is particularly the case for the group's utilization of the uppermost lake shores and feeder creeks, the Stehekin stream network, and the flanking mountains within today's Recreation Area and Park perimeters. change. Although a time when a person strengthened his bonds with his tutelary and so an important period in his life, it was likewise a period of some danger to him. They will fight and will eat each other. The shaft was fletched with three half-feathers from an eagle, placed with the back of each quill against the arrow wood, and fixed in place with a wrapping of pitched sinew. When the Creator had finished speaking, all the creatures started (b) Of the four subareas plotted, the largest number of mammalian forms were native to the lower and middle Lake Chelan area. So the Creator gave Youngest Brother the power to Cherokees are part of the Iroquois group of North American Indian tribes, which also includes Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, and Oneida. How can this patent disinterest in this particular region be explained? fail to capture Beaver and would fail to make the human being. While there may be some overstatement in these remembrances of former strengths, at least the effects of waves of pestilence, which Teit reports in some detail on informant recollection scourged them four times or more in the first half of the nineteenth century, were without doubt devastating. On three other occasions parties journeying on the river (those of Edward Ermatinger in April of 1827 and of 1828, and John Work in August, 1828) encamped for the night on the river bank in Chelan territory yet fail to note Indian sightings within Chelan borders. To some degree it must have been a year-round Chelan pursuit, both near the lake and especially up in the surrounding mountains. Rafts of logs lashed together with willow bindings were used by the Wenatchi on lakes (Ray 1942:156). Because they were so similar culturally and linguistically to the Methow upriver, to the Entiat and Wenatchi down the Columbia below them, and even to a slightly lesser degree to the Columbia on the east side of the big river, and because, as far as is known, their relations with these neighboring peoples were invariably amicable (Teit 1928:123; Walters in Spier 1938:74), it must be presumed that the Chelan frequently saw and more or less closely interacted with persons of these groups.

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