[30], In the same 1869 publication wherein he named E. platyurus and E. orientalis, Cope assigned an additional species, E. constrictus,[8] based on a partial centrum from a neck vertebra found in the Turonian-aged clay deposits at Steyning, Sussex, in the United Kingdom. [16] In 1952 Welles opined that, if E. intermedius was valid, "it must be referred to a pliosaurian genus";[28] however, he proceeded to label it a nomen dubium in 1962. Most of the neck vertebrae were compressed sideways, and bore a longitudinal crest or keel along the sides. Though Cope had originally recognized Elasmosaurus as a plesiosaur, in an 1869 paper he placed it, with Cimoliasaurus and Crymocetus, in a new order of sauropterygian reptiles. Then again, with so many sightings in lakes and oceans around the world, maybe it hasn’t exactly gone unnoticed. Still unsure. If you believe the Loch Ness Monster exists, something has to account for the creature, and it just so happens that an animal matching its description has already lived on this planet. The living animal would have been slightly larger due to cartilage present between the vertebral bodies, and was estimated by Cope at roughly 13.7 meters (45 ft). His diagnosis of the Elasmosauridae also noted the moderate length of the skull (i.e., a mesocephalic skull); the neck ribs having one or two heads; the scapula and coracoid contacting at the midline; the blunted rear outer angle of the coracoid; and the pair of openings (fenestrae) in the scapula–coracoid complex being separated by a narrower bar of bone compared to pliosaurids. [32][33] Per Ove Persson retained it as valid in 1963, noting the longitudinal ridge on the sides of the centra as an elasmosaurid trait. endobj [16] Charles Andrews elaborated on differences between elasmosaurids and pliosaurids in 1910 and 1913. /URI (http://oogoro.easterndns.com/Kxh-a) Cope had apparently concluded that the tail vertebrae belonged to the neck, since the jaws had been found at that end of the skeleton, even though the opposite end terminated in the axis and atlas bones that are found in the neck. 8 . It doesn’t mean that what they saw is definitely this or that, or that what it seems to represent is this or that necessarily, because there is always the possibility of confusion or deception, however, (and hear the knocking on the side of the coconut when I say this), if average Joe tells you he saw a creature that looked like the lochness monster, that’s what he saw, and though rare, I think there have been enough sightings over the centuries to say that people have been seeing some creature that resembles the lochness monster. [90], In 1869 Cope noted that scales and teeth of six species of fish had been discovered directly beneath the vertebrae of the Elasmosaurus holotype, and theorized that these fish would have had formed the diet of the animal. >> Design. Also the loch doesnt need to have enough food as it isnt an enclosed and isolated lake whatever it is it isnt trapped in the loch and has the ability to leave an hjnt in other more rich places hence sighting in open lales around the world. /Type /Action /Type /Annot The mandibular symphysis (where the two halves of the lower jaw connected) was well ossified, with no visible suture. [16] While he initially assigned it in 1890 to a new species of Cimoliasaurus, C. snowii,[44] he subsequently recognized the elasmosaurid nature of its humerus and coracoids. 11 0 obj /Type /Annot Amazingly, the answer may lie more in science and paleontology than myth. << [96][97] The western shore was thus highly variable, depending on variations in sea level and sediment supply. The argument was part of the "Bone Wars" rivalry between the two, and is well known in the history of paleontology. 6) [88], It is possible that Elasmosaurus and its kin stalked schools of fish, concealing themselves below and moving the head slowly up as they approached. 8 0 obj endobj Has any attempts to determine if anything in the Loch echo locates been made? [25], F. Robin O'Keefe likewise included polycotylids in the Plesiosauroidea in 2001 and 2004, but considered them more closely related to the Cimoliasauridae and Cryptoclididae in the Cryptocleidoidea. When Elasmosaurus was first discovered no-one had ever seen anything like it. The bottom was dominated by large Inoceramus clams, which were covered with oysters; there was little biodiversity. When King Kong brought Ann Darrow to his mountain lair, he was … The generic name means "thin-plate reptile", and the specific name means "flat-tailed". Although he suggested that the vertebral column of the trunk did not allow for much vertical movement due to the elongated neural spines which nearly form a continuous line with little space between adjacent vertebrae, he envisaged the neck and tail to have been much more flexible: "The snake-like head was raised high in the air, or depressed at the will of the animal, now arched swan-like preparatory to a plunge after a fish, now stretched in repose on the water or deflexed in exploring the depths below". 19 0 obj Now I think its more plausable that it may be a new species. Williston assigned another specimen discovered by Mudge and H. A. Brous in 1876. /SM 0.02 /ExtGState << /Type /Annot [17], Fossils that may have belonged to the holotype were found by the American geologist Benjamin Franklin Mudge in 1871, but have probably been lost since. /Subtype /Link The lower part of the centra were rounded from the first to the third tail vertebrae, but concave from the fourth to the 18th. He named the group Streptosauria, or "reversed lizards", due to the orientation of their individual vertebrae supposedly being reversed compared to what is seen in other vertebrate animals. Super helpful for my project, thanks, and once when I was about 7 I was obsessed with dinosaurs and I was reading my dinosaur book while watching youtube videos about mythical beasts and the idea just came to me and my teachers thought it was hilarious how into it I was and everyone laughed at me, but I'm glad someone has the same idea as me, makes me feel a little less stupid. Meanwhile, all plesiosaurs with two-headed neck ribs (the Plesiosauridae and Pliosauridae) had a clavicle made only of cartilage, such that ossification of the clavicle would turn a "plesiosaurian" into an "elasmosaurian". [70] Oskar Kuhn adopted a similar classification in 1961. /S /URI [18] In 2007 the Colombian paleontologists Leslie Noè and Marcela Gómez-Pérez expressed doubt that the additional elements belonged to the type specimen, or even to Elasmosaurus, due to lack of evidence. Cope had also discovered another large skeleton that bore great resemblance to the known remains of E. orientalis from the black shale of the "Cretaceous bed No. Six years of new plesiosaur replicas (2012-2017), Book review: Kronos Rising: Kraken (vol. At the time, Hawkins was working on a "Paleozoic Museum" in New York's Central Park, where a reconstruction of Elasmosaurus was to appear, an American equivalent to his life-sized Crystal Palace Dinosaurs in London. The maxillae (largest tooth bearing bone of the upper jaw) of elasmosaurids usually contained 14 teeth, whereas the dentaries (the main part of the lower jaws) usually contained 17 to 19. >> [38] Williston published a figure of another E. serpentinus specimen in 1914;[39] Elmer Riggs formally described it in 1939. That's probably why they are only seen infrequently, they might even prefer to be abroad at night. [8], Like other elasmosaurids, Elasmosaurus would have had a slender, triangular skull. endobj HP is 3600 compared to the plesiosaur 2400 Mosasaur stamina is 400 compared to Plesiosaur 200 Mosasaur does not drown, same as the Plesiosaur Weight is 1300 compared to Plesiosaur 800 Base melee damage on a Mosasaur is 100 compared to Plesiosaur 75 Move speed is roughly the same, if … [9] Cope did little work on the specimen since his 1870 description, and it was kept in storage for nearly 30 years. << [40] Welles moved this specimen to the new genus and species Alzadasaurus riggsi in 1943. /Font << The stones match rock from 600 kilometers (370 mi) away from where the specimen was found. /Border [0 0 0] Some theories seem to make sense, but others are even more implausible than an unknown creature lurking in the lake. [2] Like other elasmosaurids (and plesiosaurs in general), Elasmosaurus would have had large, paddle-like limbs with very long digits. [22] The unusual body structure of elasmosaurids would have limited the speed at which they could swim, and their paddles may have moved in a manner similar to the movement of oars rowing, and due to this, could not twist and were thus held rigidly. [30] Benson and Druckenmiller's 2013 analysis (below, left) further removed Terminonatator from this group and placed it as one step more derived (i.e., more specialized). Nathaniel Plumtree from Basingstoke on August 27, 2014: I once read about a time when the loch was scanned by satellites and didn't find anything like a monster or prehistoric creatures but this never said about the satellite scanning the off springing tunnels, some of which are believed to reach the ocean and stories of Nessie have been told since the 16th century and for legends to last that long there has to be something down there in the murky depths of the loch. >> However, it is relatively poorly known. /Type /Annot Would love to visit there someday :). At its deepest, it may have been only 800 or 900 meters (2,600 or 3,000 ft) deep. [32], Williston named a number of other new Elasmosaurus species in his 1906 revision. Many skeptics believe sightings of the Loch Ness Monster can be attributed to floating logs, or seals, or even strange wave formations. More than likely, all these Northern Hemisphere deep lake monsters will turn out to be some form of aquatic amphibian, something like a giant newt. /Type /Page Since its initial assignment to the Elasmosauridae, the relationships of Brancasaurus had been considered well supported, and an elasmosaurid position was recovered by O'Keefe's 2004 analysis[71] and Franziska Großmann's 2007 analysis.

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