These developments led directly to the founding of NOW. Courtesy of Getty Images. She laid the intellectual foundations for the civil rights and feminist movements, articulating arguments for dismantling the “separate but equal” doctrine that permitted racial segregation and for extending the Equal Protection clause to women, and she mounted legal challenges to discriminatory laws. Pauli Murray and Caroline Ware: Forty Years of Letters in Black and White (Gender and American Culture) Part of: Gender and American Culture (78 Books) | by Anne Firor Scott | Oct 30, 2006. Murray performed her first Holy Eucharist in the same North Carolina chapel, Chapel of the Cross in Chapel Hill, where her grandmother, an enslaved person, had been baptized. Murray coined that term to describe the hoots of derisive laughter she received when suggesting to her Howard Law classmates the Plessy v. Ferguson decision (upholding racial segregation state laws as constitutional under the “separate but equal” doctrine, 1896) was inherently immoral and discriminatory and on those grounds should be overturned. "[R]ace," she recalled, "was the atmosphere one breathed from day to day, the pervasive irritant, the chronic allergy, the vague apprehension which made one uncomfortable and jumpy. Though it was customary for top students to continue their legal studies at Harvard Law School with the assistance of the Julius Rosenwald Fellowship program, Harvard rejected her because of her gender. She expanded the program into a full-fledged American Studies department two years later and in 1971 was honored with the Louis Stulberg Chair in Law and Politics and a full, tenured professorship in American Studies. She taught at the Ghana School of Law and Brandeis College, becoming the first person to teach African American and women’s studies courses there. In 1949, while living in Brooklyn, she made her one and only bid for public office, running for a City Council seat on the Liberal Party ticket. Pauli Murray College – In addition, Yale University will name a residential college for the Rev. In her 1951 book, States' Laws on Race and Color, Murray offered a definitive framework for challenging state segregation laws. She began her legal studies at Howard University, a black university in Washington, D.C, certain that this environment, at least, would be free from prejudice. The overt discrimination Murray faced in school led her to coin the term "Jane Crow" in reference to sex discrimination — the sister of Jim Crow. The website for the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America currently features this article, “Pauli Murray: A One-Woman Civil Rights Movement,” https://www.radcliffe.harvard.edu/news/schlesinger-newsletter/pauli-murray-one-woman-civil-rights-movement  The Library has an extensive collection of Pauli’s writings and will feature the life and work of Pauli at a discussion panel on April 24, 2017 in Cambridge, Mass. Within every community there are those who refuse to conform to standards imposed on them. Impetus for a Women’s Civil Rights Organization – The Jane Crow article discussed Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as it applied to women, and drew comparisons between discriminatory laws against women and Jim Crow laws, according to a Wikipedia article. Posted By A contingent of supporters from Durham, N.C. spoke in favor of the designation and presented the committee with 2,500 signed petitions – many of them from NOW leaders. October 24, 2016, Photo courtesy Schlesinger Library, Undeterred, Murray continued her legal studies at the University of California, Berkeley. She was an African-American civil rights activist, who was arrested for refusing to move to the back of the bus in Petersburg, Va.  15 years before Rosa Parks; and she organized restaurant sit-ins in Washington, D.C. 20 years before the Greensboro sit-ins. Occupations: civil rights activist, lawyer, college professor, Episcopal clergy. Murray discovered to her dismay that while racial bias was not a factor, sexual discrimination against women was rampant. At the height of the Civil Rights Movement, Murray offered a critique of the 1963 March on Washington (which was organized primarily by her CORE colleague, Bayard Rustin):  "It is indefensible to call a national march on Washington and send out a call which contains the name of not a single woman leader." The following year, Murray became a co-founder of the National Organization for Women (NOW). The NAACP considered filing a lawsuit on behalf, but decided against since there was a question of her state of residence. "States' Laws on Race and Color," University of Georgia Press, http://www.ugapress.uga.edu/books/shelf/0820318833.html (February 3, 2003). Anna Pauline (Pauli) Murray was born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1910 and moved to Durham at the age of four to live with her aunt after the death of her mother. Murray's determination to fight segregation and secure her rights as an American grew, and in 1938 she applied for admission to the University of North Carolina (UNC). The Black Queer Feminist Civil Rights Lawyer Priest who co-founded NOW, but that History Nearly Forgot Reference Material on James W. Clark, Jr. Reference Material on Marsha White Warren, Presentation of Betty Adcock into the Literary Hall of Fame, Presentation of Shelby Stephenson into the Literary Hall of Fame, Appearances in Periodicals by Kathryn Stripling Byer, Reference Material on Kathryn Stripling Byer, Autobiographies and Essays by Maya Angelou, Children’s Books and Poetry by Maya Angelou, Appearances in Periodicals by Wilbur J. She returned to the US to earn a doctorate of Juridical Science at Yale University in 1965, the first African American to achieve that degree. She also embraced gender non-conformity, opting to wear men’s clothing at times, but her nonconforming identity made it easy for historians and storytellers to omit her decades of intellectual, social, and political contributions to a variety of civil rights movements. As the nation's acceptance of the LGBTQ community grows, we are now able to learn more about the full and rich lives lived by members of that community who, like Murray, made important contributions to American history. Some of these, by sheer force of will, make sure their voices are heard in support of the "march toward freedom". She was the first Black person to earn a JSD (Doctor of the Science of Law) degree from Yale Law School, a founder of the National Organization for Women and the first Black woman to be ordained an Episcopal priest. A Remarkable Life – Murray’s life and her remarkable accomplishments are coming back into focus as the National Trust for Historic Preservation considers designating the Pauli Murray childhood home at 906 Carroll Street in Durham, N.C. as National Historic Landmark.

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