A combination of Cao Cao's strategic errors and the effectiveness of Huang Gai's ruse had resulted in the allied victory at the Battle of Red Cliffs. For example, dramas based on stories revolving around Su Shi and Red Cliff were produced in great numbers Moreover, one candidate site, Puqi (蒲圻), was renamed "Chibi City" (赤壁市) in 1998 in a direct attempt to tie this location to the historical battlefield.[12].

A large number of men and horses either burned to death or drowned (Chen c. 280:54, 1262–63).

Examples from the Romance of the Three Kingdoms include Zhuge Liang pretending to use magic to call forth favourable winds (that he had in fact predicted by astronomical observation) for the fire ship attack, his strategy of "using straw boats to borrow arrows", and Guan Yu capturing and releasing Cao Cao at Huarong Trail. Tropical diseases, to which the southerners were largely immune, were also rampant in Cao Cao's camps. The romances added wholly fictional and fantastical elements to the historical accounts and these were repeated in popular plays and operas. Coordinates: 29°52′11″N 113°37′13″E / 29.86972°N 113.62028°E / 29.86972; 113.62028, Sun Quan and Liu Bei decisively defeat Cao Cao in 208, "The engagement at the Red Cliffs took place in the winter of the 13th year of Jian'an, probably about the end of 208." [13] Citing several historical-geographical studies, Zhang (2006) shows that earlier accounts place the battlefield in Wuchang. In 1998, the Chinese State Council approved the renaming of the city in celebration of the battle at Red Cliffs.

Many of these soldiers drowned in the mud or were trampled to death in the effort. The modern Chibi City in Hubei province was formerly named Puqi.

The exact nature of these vessels is unclear. Su Shi (蘇軾)’s Second Ode to the Red Cliffs (Hou Chibifu 後赤壁賦) Both the First and the Second Odes are two of the most celebrated pieces in Chinese history. The younger son prevailed, and Liu Biao's dispossessed eldest son, Liu Qi, departed to assume a commandery, Jiangxia (de Crespigny 1990:241). Another candidate is Wuhan, which straddles the Yangtze at the confluence of the Yangtze and Han rivers. Cao Cao's own thoughts regarding his failure at Red Cliffs suggest that he held his own actions and misfortunes responsible for the defeat, rather than the strategies utilised by his enemy during the battle: "... it was only because of the sickness that I burnt my ships and retreated. Zhang (2006:215, 223) asserts that the Chibi battlefield was one of a set of hills in Wuchang that were levelled in the 1930s so that their stone could be used as raw material. one deduces that it was probably written during the 6th Year of Yuanfeng, when Su was 48 years of age. This is generally accomplished by minimising the importance of Eastern Wu commanders and advisors such as Zhou Yu and Lu Su (de Crespigny 1990:xi). more than 800 years after the epic Battle of Red Cliff, the famous poet-official Su Shi (Dongpo) and friends made two trips to Red Nose Cliff (赤鼻磯)
The entire scroll is composed in regular script, the characters broad and tightly written, the brushstrokes full and smooth, Zhou Yu had previously observed that Cao Cao's generals and soldiers were mostly cavalry and infantry, and few had any experience in naval warfare. Liu Bei gained territory by taking over the four commanderies (Wuling, Changsha, Lingling and Guiyang) south of the Yangtze River. Later he studied with his mother, nee Cheng ft, herself a highly educated woman. In 1079 Su was falsely accused in Wutai Poem Incident (烏台詩案) and exiled to Huangzhou (黄州). For Su Shi, this was also a time when he had to endure the hardships of exile from court that resulted from the Wutai Poem Incident (烏台詩案). The battle must also have been downstream (northeast) of that location (de Crespigny 1990:256–57; Zhang 2006:217). Although Cao Cao had boasted command of 800,000 men, Zhou Yu estimated Cao Cao's actual troop strength to be closer to 230,000.

Liu Bei's main advisor, Zhuge Liang, was sent to Chaisang (柴桑; in present-day Jiujiang, Jiangxi) to negotiate forming a mutual front against Cao Cao with Sun Quan (de Crespigny 1969:263). 釋文:壬戌之秋,七月既望,蘇子與客泛舟遊於赤壁之下。清風徐來,水波不興。舉酒屬客,誦明月之詩,歌窈窕之章。少焉,月出於東山之上,徘徊於鬥牛之間。白露橫江,水光接天。 縱一葦之所如,陵萬頃之茫然。浩浩乎如馮虛禦風,而不知其所止;飄飄乎如遺世獨立,羽化而登仙。於是飲酒樂甚,扣舷而歌之。歌曰:“桂棹兮蘭槳,擊空明兮溯流光。渺渺兮余懷,望美人兮天一方。”客有吹洞簫者,倚歌而和之。其聲嗚嗚然,如怨如慕,如泣如訴,余音嫋嫋,不絕如縷。 舞幽壑之潛蛟,泣孤舟之嫠婦。 蘇子愀然,正襟危坐,而問客曰:“何為其然也?”客曰:“‘月明星稀,烏鵲南飛’,此非曹孟德之詩乎?西望夏口,東望武昌。山川相繆,郁乎蒼蒼,此非孟德之困於周郎者乎? 方其破荊州,下江陵,順流而東也, 艫千裏,旌旗蔽空,釃酒臨江,橫槊賦詩,固一世之雄也,而今安在哉?況吾與子漁樵於江渚之上,侶魚蝦而友麋鹿,駕一葉之扁舟,舉匏樽以相屬。 寄蜉蝣於天地,渺浮海之一粟。哀吾生之須臾,羨長江之無窮。挾飛仙以遨遊,抱明月而長終。知不可乎驟得,托遺響於悲風。” 蘇子曰:“客亦知夫水與月乎?逝者如斯,而未嘗往也;盈虛者如彼,而卒莫消長也。蓋將自其變者而觀之,則天地曾不能以一瞬;自其不變者而觀之,則物與我皆無盡也,而又何羨乎? 且夫天地之間,物各有主,茍非吾之所有,雖一毫而莫取。惟江上之清風,與山間之明月,耳得之而為聲,目遇之而成色,取之無禁,用之不竭,是造物者之無盡藏也,而吾與子之所共食。”客喜而笑,洗盞更平酌。肴核既盡,杯盤狼籍。相與枕藉乎舟中,不知東方之既白。軾去歲作此賦,未嘗輕出以示人。見者蓋一二人而已。欽之有使至,求近文,遂親書以寄。多難畏事,欽之愛我,必深藏之不出也。又有後赤璧賦,筆倦未能寫。當俟後信。軾白。. As Huang Gai's "defecting" squadron approached the midpoint of the river, the sailors applied fire to the ships before taking to small boats. He then completed a successful campaign against the Wuhuan in the winter of the same year, thus securing his northern frontier. It is directly across the Yangtze from Wulin. west of the town Huangzhou (黃州). In 1983, a statue of prominent Song dynasty poet, Su Shi, was erected at the Huangzhou site of 'Su Dongpo's Red Cliffs' in tribute to his writings regarding Red Cliff (Xinhua 1983). Su Shi (1036-1101), also known as Su Dongpo, had a long career as a government official in the Northern Song.
The entire scroll is composed in regular script, the characters broad and tightly written, the brushstrokes full and smooth, showing that Su had achieved perfect harmony between the elegant flow in the style of the Two Wang Masters [Wang Xizhi (王羲之, 303–361) and Wang Xianzhi(王獻之, 344–386)] that he learned from in his early years, and the more heavy simplicity in the style of Yan Zhenqing (顏真卿, 709–785) that he learned in his middle ages. Handscroll, ink on paper, 23.9 x 258 cm, National Palace Museum, Taipei For example, although modern Huarong city is located in Hunan, south of the Yangtze, in the 3rd century the city of that name was due east of Jiangling, considerably north of the Yangtze (Zhang 2006:229; de Crespigny 1990:256 78n). Su Shi >>   By the time Zhuge Liang arrived, Cao Cao had already sent Sun Quan a letter boasting of commanding 800,000 men and hinting that he wanted Sun to surrender. Shortly afterwards, in the autumn of 208, his army began a southern campaign (Eikenberry 1994; de Crespigny 2003).

For example, dramas based on stories revolving around Su Shi and Red Cliff were produced in great numbers during the following Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties. His given name, Shi (轼), refers to the crossbar railing at the front of a chariot; Su Xun felt that the railing was a humble, but indispensable, part of a carriage. In his rhapsodies Su yearned nostalgically for the daring bravura of heroes who fought at Red Cliff centuries earlier, while also facing the realities of life’s brevity and the hypocritical nature of people.

       In the fifth year of Emperor Shenzong (神宗)'s Yuanfeng (元豐) reign (1082) in the Northern Song period, Su is also one of the most noted poets of the Northern Song period. To differentiate from Su Dongpo's Red Cliffs, the site is also referred to as the "Military Red Cliffs" (武赤壁). The boat-trip took place at Red Cliff,

[5] Although its location remains uncertain, the majority of academic conjectures place it on the south bank of the Yangtze River, southwest of present-day Wuhan and northeast of Baqiu (present-day Yueyang, Hunan). There is a local belief in Wuhan that the battle was fought at the junction of the rivers, southwest of the former Wuchang city, which is now part of Wuhan (de Crespigny 1990:256 n 78). Consequently, he was able to develop a clear and philosophical form of critical self-examination on the aspects of change and permanence. The Battle of Red Cliffs unfolded in three stages: an initial skirmish at Red Cliffs followed by a retreat to the Wulin (烏林) battlefields on the northwestern bank of the Yangtze, a decisive naval engagement, and Cao Cao's disastrous retreat along Huarong Road. Despite the strategic acumen Cao Cao had displayed in earlier campaigns and battles, in this case he had simply assumed that numerical superiority would eventually defeat the Sun and Liu navy.

which were supplemented by Wen Zhengming (文徵明, 1470-1559) with annotations in small characters, Although numerous, Cao Cao's men were already exhausted by the unfamiliar environment and the extended southern campaign, as Zhuge Liang observed: "Even a powerful arrow at the end of its flight cannot penetrate a silk cloth" (Military Documents 1979:193). The state of Shu Han, in particular, was viewed by later literati as the "legitimate" successor to the Han dynasty, so fictionalised accounts assign greater prominence than the historical records warrant to the roles of Liu Bei, Zhuge Liang and other heroes from Shu.

且夫天地之間,物各有主,茍非吾之所有,雖一毫而莫取。惟江上之清風,與山間之明月,耳得之而為聲,目遇之而成色,取之無禁,用之不竭,是造物者之無盡藏也,而吾與子之所共食。” For Su Shi, this was also a time when he had to endure the hardships of exile from court one has a sense of Su's fear as a result of being implicated in the emperor's displeasure over writings. Furthermore, this total included 80,000 impressed troops from the armies of the recently deceased Liu Biao, so the loyalty and morale of a large number of Cao Cao's force was uncertain (Eikenberry 1994:60). Some sources mention the south banks of the Yangtze in Jiayu County (嘉鱼县) in the prefecture-level city of Xianning in Hubei province as a possible location. Cao Cao then retreated north to his home base of Ye, leaving Cao Ren and Xu Huang to guard Jiangling, Yue Jin stationed in Xiangyang, and Man Chong in Dangyang (Chen c. 280). The Yangtze River in the area of Jing Province was key to the success of this strategy. Sun Quan's troops had suffered far greater casualties than Liu Bei's in the extended conflict against Cao Ren following the Battle of Red Cliffs and the death of Zhou Yu in 210 resulted in a drastic weakening of Sun Quan's strength in Jing Province (de Crespigny 1990:291–92, 197). In the fifth year of Emperor Shenzong (神宗)’s Yuanfeng (元豐) reign (1082) in the Northern Song period, more than 800 years after the epic Battle of Red Cliff, the famous poet-official Su Shi and friends made two trips to Red Nose Cliff (赤鼻磯) west of the town Huangzhou (黃州). The control of Jing Province provided Liu Bei with virtually unlimited access to the passage into Yi Province and important waterways into Wu (southeastern China) and dominion of the southern Yangtze River. that he learned from in his early years, and the more heavy simplicity in the style of In his rhapsodies Su yearned nostalgically for the daring bravura of heroes who fought at Red Cliff centuries earlier, 客喜而笑,洗盞更平酌。肴核既盡,杯盤狼籍。相與枕藉乎舟中,不知東方之既白。 although some scholars believe that the supplementations were actually written by his son Wen Peng (文彭). Countless calligraphers also repeatedly transcribed Su’s two rhapsodies on Red Cliff, which likewise became popular among painters wishing to illustrate and celebrate Su Shi and Red Cliff. 舞幽壑之潛蛟,泣孤舟之嫠婦。  Su Shi (蘇軾, 1036-1101), Song Dynasty (960-1279) Handscroll, ink on paper, 23.9 x 258 cm, National Palace Museum, Taipei.

Arts >> This would place the battlefield downstream from Puqi (Chibi City), a view that is supported by scholars of Chinese history such as Rafe de Crespigny, Wang Li and Zhu Dongrun, following the Qing dynasty historical document Shui Jing Zhu (de Crespigny 1990:256).


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